Dipole Moments and the Asymmetry of Chemical Polarity

Polar molecules are defined by the asymmetrical distribution of electrons caused by the molecule having a minimum of two different elements with a difference in electronegativity of 0.5 or greater. A separation of the charge around the molecule, known as a dipole moment, is also a feature of polar molecules.

Non-polar molecules either have an equal share of electrons between atoms in a diatomic molecule, or have a symmetrical arrangement of polar bonds. Molecules can be non-polar if the geometry is symmetrical despite the charge of electrons not being so.

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