The Ancient Egyptian civilisation is exceptionally famous because it continued without massive cultural change for almost 3,000 years. All its cities were built beside the Nile, a very manageable river; making farming easy and productive. There were normally food surpluses, hence the Egyptians had time to develop an elaborate culture and an optimistic religion.
Egyptian history is divided into three main periods:
1. The wealthy Old Kingdom, which was the period of pyramid-building and pharaohs, Egypt’s ‘divine’ rulers.
2. The Middle Kingdom, following a period of droughts and conflict, saw the restoration of the pharaohs, now from Nubia, and the invasion and later expulsion of the Hyksos.
3. The New Kingdom rulers, with imperial tendencies, invaded other lands in the pursuit of wealth.